Vishnu Sahasranama

ಅಗ್ರಾಹ್ಯಃ ಶಾಶ್ವತಃ ಕೃಷ್ಣೋ ಲೋಹಿತಾಕ್ಷಃ ಪ್ರತರ್ದನಃ |

ಪ್ರಭೂತಸ್ತ್ರಿಕಕುಬ್ಧಾಮ ಪವಿತ್ರಂ ಮಙ್ಗಲಂ (ಮಂಗಲಂ) ಪರಮ್ || ೭ ||

agrāhyaḥ śāśvataḥ kṛṣṇo lohitākṣaḥ pratardanaḥ |

prabhūta trikakubdhāma pavitraṃ maṅgalaṃ (maṃgalaṃ) param || 7 ||


Although God is present in infinite forms in the infinite universe, but he is still immutable! He is beyond human knowledge, because he is foremost and beyond our imagination. Also, he is Agra (ಅಗ್ರ) – Ayhya – means, he is the foremost and famous amongst all that follow.


God does not change his original form, and he is infinite and always present, hence he is śāśvataḥ.


From an outlook, it seems the name is Kr̥ṣṇa avatara born to Vasudeva and Devaki. However Kr̥ṣṇa is also the name of his original form. Gangacharya when naming the child, informs Mata Yashoda that: “I am not naming this child. All the names in this universe belong to him, I am just reminding you the name of his original form. He is Shyama, Sundara, Vasudeva, Sree Krishna.” By stating these words, he names or rather reminds everyone that the child’s name is Kr̥ṣṇa.

One form who took birth as sons of Dharma through his wife Murti who was a daughter of Daksha is Kr̥ṣṇa (Nara, Narayana, Hari, Krishna). Out of 1000 forms, Krishna is also one.

Primarily, Kr̥ṣṇa means black. Neelamegha Shyama (dark complexion with a distinct hue of blue). Neela also means perfect. That is why the most beautiful Draupati was called Kr̥ṣṇe.

Dronacharya impressive in his white beard, wearing white clothes and was dark in color. Here black also signifies knowledge. When we are angry, we turn red. Similarly, one who is knowledgeable has dark complexion with a distinct hue of blue. Hence the knowledge himself and the most handsome person Kr̥ṣṇa too the form as Neelamegha Shyama (dark complexion with a distinct hue of blue). The name Kr̥ṣṇa also has various other meanings.

Before the birth of Kr̥ṣṇa, Devaki carried Saṅkarṣaṇa (Balarama) in her womb. He preserved Saṅkarṣaṇa and was born as the eight child and hence is known as Kr̥ṣṇa.

After his birth, every action of him was destruction of evil an attraction for the good. He destroyed the evil Putani, Shatakasur, Keshi, Kamsa .etc., Similarly he attracted birds, cows, cowherds, Gopika stree .etc.,

By standing in Arjuna’s chariot he destroyed the opponents by his mere looks, hence he is Kr̥ṣṇa. He destroyed the evil doers and protected the good and hence he is Kr̥ṣṇa. He was born to protect the good and safeguard Dharma and hence he is Kr̥ṣṇa.

Kr̥ṣṇa can be split into Krishi+Kna= Kr̥ṣṇa, Krishi means earth, Kna means valor or bliss. Hence Kr̥ṣṇa means to safe guard the earth and protect Dharma he took blissful form.


Loka + Hita + Aksha – means for the betterment of the society and to fulfil the good desires of his devotees the one whose eyes are like lotus. If one wants to know the meaning of this name, we need to understand some situations when God pretended to be angry. Let us see the situation during the epic battle of Mahabharata when Bhimsha and Arjuna fought against each other. Arjuna without his desire was fighting against Bhimsha who had brought him up with love and affection. Seeing that Arjuna not fighting with desire and full potential, Krisna pretends to be angry. Before the start of the epic battle of Mahabharatha, Krishna had vowed that he will not bear arms. Despite his vow, Krishna grabs hold of a broken wheel of a chariot and charges toward Bhimsha to kill him. During this situation, the eyes of Krishna appeared like crimson red Lotus. Seeing this Bhimsha folds both his hands in reverence and says: “O God, I had made a vow before you that I will make you bear arms during the battle. You had vowed that you will not bear arms and use Chakra. However, to fulfil my vow, you bore arms in the form of broken wheel of a chariot (Chakra). I am blessed, you ignored your vow but never ignored the vow of your devotee. Veda’s mention you are savior of your devotees.” In this situation one can observe the divine grace that God bestows on his devotees.

We can also observe similar situation during the Lord’s Narashima avatara. After mutilating Hiranyakashapu and wearing Hiranyakashapu’s intestine as a garland, he pretended as though his anger did not subside and his eyes appeared like crimson red Lotus. The deities pretended that they were scared seeing that ‘God’ in that anger state and did not come forward to console the ‘God’– even Goddess Lakshmi pretended she was scared and could not console the ‘God’. To uplift Praladha, they requested 5-year-old Praladha to console the Lord. Praladha goes forward and seats himself on the ‘Lord’s’ lap and consoles the ‘Lord’. The Lord then asks Praladha what he wants, and Praladha says ‘you are the one who is the Lord of my senses, what shall I ask from you? However, since you asked me, please forgive my father Hiranyakashapu’s sin and grant him Moksha. The lord smiles and says, you do not ask me this boon ask me something else, since the day you were born as Hiranyakashapu’s son your father already attained Mokasha.

The situations we observed above gives us an understanding how ‘God’ bearing eyes colored like crimson red Lotus will destroy evil to upheld good. The one with eyes colored like crimson red Lotus is lohitākṣaḥ.


The use of abbreviations originated from Sanskrit. In Sanskrit, abbreviations are very often used. pratardanaḥ can be split as pra + tardana or pra + tarda + nayati.

pra + tardana, here ‘prakrusta’ means excellent and ‘pra’ is the abbreviation for prakrusta. tardana means the one who destroys. Hence pratardana means one who destroys the forces that harm excellence.

pra + tarda + nayati, here ‘pra’ is the abbreviation for Prahalada. ‘tarda’ means harm. ‘nayati’ means that destroys. Hence pratardanaḥ means, the one who destroyed Hiranyakashpu who harmed Prahalada, and protected the society from evil.


‘Bhuma’ means complete. ‘Prabhuti’ means the state of accomplished souls i.e., Bliss. Prabhūta means one who is complete and bliss.


Tri + Kakut + Dhama = trikakubdhāma; here ‘Tri’ means three, ‘Kakt’ means pinnacle or worlds, ‘Dhama’ one who resides. Trikakubdhāma means one who resides at the three pinnacles or in three worlds. Earth, Sky, and Heavens are the three pinnacles or worlds. There are three positions in these three pinnacles. On earth it is ‘Swetha Dweepa’, in sky it is ‘Anantasana’, in heavens it is ‘Vaikunta’. Three radiant forms – Brahma, Vishnu, and Maheshwara. Three letters in Omkara - Aa, Uu and Ma. For these three letters, the three words – “Bhur Bhuvaḥ Swaḥ”. From these three words, three metre (as in music, refers to the regularly recurring patterns and accents such as bars and beats) – “Tat-savitur Vareñyaṃ, Bhargo Devasya Dheemah, Dhiyo Yonaḥ Prachodayāt”. The three orders presented in three metre – ‘Purusha Suktah’ (the first order 1-5, the second order 6-10, and the third order 11-16). From the orders the most famous three Veda’s – ‘Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, and Sama Veda’. Hence everything mentioned is a pinnacle. Hence Trikakubdhāma means: one who resides in three worlds; one resides in the three permanent positions in these three worlds; one who resides in the three radiant forms; the one who is established in the three letters ‘Om’; the one who is praised in three metre; the one who is praised in three orders in Purusha Suktha; the one who is praised in three Vedas .etc.,

In summary Trikakubdhāma means one who is present in three worlds in three forms, in all letters, in all scriptures and orders.


Once God leaves this body, the body becomes inauspicious. Hence, one who is capable of making one auspicious is ‘Pavitra’. However, this mortal Body is not Auspicious. Our Body is like Lotus born in muddy water.The mud or impurities present in this body are many, one achieves auspiciousness once one leaves this mortal body. Permanent auspiciousness is when one reach salvation. The one who grants Salvation is know and pavitraṃ.

maṅgalaṃ (maṃgalaṃ) param

maṅgalaṃ means upliftment or Kalyana (Upa in Upanishad also conveys the same meaning). Usually, marriage is called Kalyana. The women wear Mangalasutra after wedding. However, all weddings do not lead to upliftment! By which wedding, man and woman achieve spiritual upliftment is called Kalyana. The wedding that leads us to spiritual downfall is not upliftment but inauspicious. The death that leads us to salvation is Kalyana, suicide is inauspicious and leads to spiritual downfall. One who dedicates his good Karma (SatKarma) to God is auspicious (like Pandavas did). One who does Karma to benefit oneself is inauspicious (DushKarma). Just performing SatKarma is not upliftment, but one who does not perform DushKarma after doing SatKarma is upliftment and that is salvation. God is auspicious and leads us always towards upliftment by making us perform SatKarma – hence he is maṅgalaṃ (maṃgalaṃ) param.