Valmiki describes the innumerable virtues of Sree Rama in this Sarga. Dasaratha wants to coronate [crown] Rama as the crown prince with the approval of all his people. With this end in mind, he invites various citizens, important people from all cities and villages in his kingdom.
Chapter [Sarga] 1 in Detail
gachchhataa maatulakulam bharatena tadaa.anaghah |
shatrughno nityashatrughno niitah priitipuraskritah || 2-1-1
Bharatha, while going to his maternal uncle's house, has taken his brother Satrughna (he who has no sins and who annihilates [destroys] his enemies) along with him with love.
sa tatra nyavasadbhraatraa saha satkaarasatkritah |
maatulenaashvapatinaa putrasnehena laalitah || 2-1-2
Treated with good hospitality and paternal love by his maternal uncle, Yudhaajit, who was a lord of cavalry [an army mounted on horseback], Bharatha stayed with his brother there.
tatraapi nivasantau tau tarpyamaanau cha kaamatah |
bhraatarau smarataam viirau vriddham dasaratham nripam || 2-1-3
Those heroes of valor Bharatha and Satrughna, though staying there enjoying all the comforts, were remembering their age old father.
raajaapi tau mahaatejaah sasmaara proshhitau sutau |
ubhau bharatashatrughnau mahendravarunopamau || 2-1-4
The mighty Dasaratha was also often remembering his sons Bharatha and Satrughna who were out of his state and who were equivalent to Indra and Varuna.
sarva eva tu tasyeshhta shchatvaarah purushharshhabhaah |
svashariradvinirvrittashchatvara iva baahavah || 2-1-5
Dasaratha was bestowing [giving] his equal love to all his four sons who were best among men, as though they were his four hands emerging out of his own body.
teshhaamapi mahaatejaa raamo ratikarah pituh |
svayambhuuriva bhuutaanaam babhuuva gunavattarah || 2-1-6
Rama, like the Brahma among all the living beings, the most virtuous among those brothers and the mightiest was a great source of joy for his father.
sa hi devai rudiirnasya raavanasya vadhaarthibhih |
arthito maanushhe loke jajjne vishhnuh sanaatanah || 2-1-7
That Rama, was he not the eternal Vishnu who was born on earth as prayed by celestials to kill the egoistic Ravana?
kausalyaa shushubhe putrenaamitatejasaa |
yathaa varena devaanaamaditirvajrapaaninaa || 2-1-8
Like Adithi by Indra, best among the celestials, Kausalya shone by her son Rama, the mighty.
sa hi ruupopapannashcha viiryavaananasuuyakah |
bhuumaavanupamah suunurganairdhasharathopamah || 2-1-9
Rama was beautiful in form, a hero of valor and without envy. By virtues, he was like Dasaratha. In this way, he was an incomparable son on earth.
sa cha nityam prashaantaatmaa mridupuurvam tu bhaashhate |
uchyamaano.api parushham nottaram pratipadyate || 2-1-10
That Rama was always peaceful in mind and spoke softly. He did not react to the hard words spoken by others.
kathamchidupakaarena kritenai kena tushhyati |
na smaratyapakaaraanaam shatamapyaatmavattayaa || 2-1-11
That Rama, because of his good bent of mind, feels glad even by whatever way a good thing is done to him. He does not remember any number of bad things done to him.
shiilavriddhai rjjnaanavriddhairvayovriddhaishcha sajjanaih |
kathayannaasta vainitya mastrayogyaantareshhvapi || 2-1-12
Whenever he finds some time even while practicing archery, Rama used to converse with elderly people, elder by way of conduct or wisdom or age or with good- natured people.
buddhimaan madhuraabhaashhii puurvabhaashhii priyamvadah |
viiryavaanna cha viiryena mahataa svena vismitah || 2-1-13
Rama was a wise man. He used to speak sweetly. He was the first man to initiate [begin] a talk. His speech was compassionate. He was valorous. But he was not arrogant of his mighty valor.
na chaanritakatho vidvaan vriddhaanaam pratipuujakah |
anuraktah prajaabhishcha prajaashchaapyanurajyate || 2-1-14
He did not speak untruth. He was all knowing. He used to be receptive and worshipful to the elders. People used to love him and he used to love the people.
saanukrosho jitakrodho braahmanapratipuujakah |
diinaanukampii dharmajjno nityam pragrahavaan shuchih || 2-1-15
He had compassion. He conquered anger. He used to be receptive [open and responsive to ideas, impressions, or suggestions] and worshipful to the wise. He had mercy towards the meek [weak or mild people]. He knew what was to be done. He had always self-control. He was clean (in conduct).
kulochitamatih kshaatram dharmam svam bahumanyate |
manyate parayaa kiirtya mahatsvargaphalam tatah || 2-1-16
That Rama, having an attitude suitable for his social rank, giving due respect to righteousness of warrior-class, believed that by following the righteousness he would attain great fame and through it the fruit of heaven.
naashreyasi rato vidvaanna viruddhakathaaruchih |
uttarottarayuktau cha vaktaa vaachaspati ryathaa || 2-1-17
Rama was not interested in actions which were not beneficial. He was a scholar. He had no taste in tales opposing righteousness. Like Vachaspathi, his eloquent [marked by forceful and fluent expression] speech contained a series of strategies for action.
arogastaruno vaagmii vapushhmaan deshakaalavit |
loke purushhasaarajjnassaadhureko vinirmitah || 2-1-18
Rama was a young man without any disease. He was a good speaker. He had a good body. He knew both time and place. He could grasp the essence of men. He was the one gentleman born on earth.
sa tu sreshhthairgunairyuktah prajaanaam paarthivaatmajah |
bahishchara iva praano babhuuva gunatah priyah || 2-1-19
People loved the virtuous prince Rama and treated him as their spirit moving outside.
samyagvidyaavratasnaato yathaavatsaan^gavedavit |
ishhvastre cha pituh shreshhtho babhuuva bharataagrajah || 2-1-20
After completing his education properly, Rama, after knowing the science of archery as prescribed [advised], was better than his father in the use of bow and arrows.
kalyaanaabhijanah saadhuradiinah satyavaagrijuh |
vriddhairabhiviniitashcha dvijairdharmaarthadarshibhih || 2-1-21
Rama, having born in a good clan, was gentle minded. He was not feeble [weak]. He spoke truth. He was straightforward. He was properly trained by elderly wise men that knew righteousness.
dharmakaamaarthatattvajjnah smritimaan pratibhaanavaan |
laukike samayaachaare kritakalpo vishaaradah || 2-1-22
Rama knew the real form of desire, wealth and righteousness. He had a good memory power. He had a spontaneous [natural] wisdom. He had skills in arranging customs useful to society prevalent [dominant] at that time.
nibhritah samvritaakaaro guptamantrah sahaayavaan |
amoghakrodhaharshhashcha tyaagasamyamakaalavit || 2-1-23
Rama was humble. He did not let his feelings appear outwardly. He kept his thoughts to himself. He helped others. His anger and pleasure were not wasteful. He knew when to give and when not to give.
dridhabhaktih sthiraprajjno naasadgraahii na durvachaah |
nistandrirapramattashcha svadoshhaparadoshhavit || 2-1-24
Rama had a firm devotion and steadfast mind [not subject to change]. He was not stubborn nor did he speak evil words. He was free from idleness and was ever alert. He recognized his own errors and those of others.
shaastrajjnashcha kritajjnashcha purushhaantarakovidah |
yah pragrahaanugrahayoryathaanyaayam vichakshanah || 2-1-25
Rama knew the theory and practice of sciences. He understood the differences among men. He could judiciously discriminate whom to protect and whom to punish.
satsamgrahapragrahane sthaanavinnigrahasya cha |
aayakarmanyupaayajjnah samdrishhtavyayakarmavit || 2-1-26
He identified good men and protected them. He knew the people worthy of reprimand [to put down by force]. He knew the ways and means of getting income as well as the system of spending, as perceived [defined] by economic sciences.
shraishhthyam shaastrasamuuheshhu praapto vyaamishrakeshhu cha |
arthadharmau cha samgrihya sukhatantro na chaalasah || 2-1-27
Rama could obtain great skill in the groups of sciences along with their subsidiaries [sub branches]. He was interested in enjoying comforts only after understanding the economic realities. He never remained inactive.
vaihaarikaanaam shilpaanaam vijjnaataarthavibhaagavit |
aarohe vinaye chaiva yuktovaaranavaajinaam || 2-1-28
Rama was acquainted with the fine arts useful for entertainment. He knew how to distribute the wealth. He was efficient in riding and taming of elephants and horses.
dhanurvedavidaam sreshhtho lokeatirathasammatah |
abhiyaataa prahartaa cha senaanayavishaaradah || 2-1-29
Rama was the best of persons knowing the science of archery in the world; and was well appreciated by the champions of archery. He attained skills in marshalling [to place in proper rank or position and lead] the army. He faced and killed the enemies in battle.
apradhrishhyashcha samgraame kruddhairapi suraasuraih |
anasuuyo jitakrodho na dripto na cha matsarii |
na chaavamantaa bhuutaanaam na cha kaalavashaanugah || 2-1-30
Even enraged celestials [suggesting heaven or divinity] and demons could not defeat Rama in battle. He had no jealousy. He conquered anger. He had no arrogance and envy [desire to cause pain, injury, or distress to another]. He had not humiliated [insulted] any living being. He had not surrendered to time.
evam shreshhthagunairyuktah prajaanaam paarthivaatmajah |
sammatastrishhu lokeshhuvasudhaayaah kshamaagunaih || 2-1-31
buddyaa brihaspatestulyo viiryenaapi shachiipateh |
That Prince Rama, with these good virtues, was fair to the people. He was agreeable to the three worlds. By patience and the related virtues, he was equal to earth, by wisdom to Brihaspati and by valor [personal bravery] to Devendra.
tathaa sarvaprajaakaantaih priitisamjananaih pituh || 2-1-32
gunairviruruche raamo diiptah suurya ivaamshubhih |
Rama, by his virtues, was a source of happiness to all the people and a spring of joy to his father. As the sun shines with his rays, Rama was shining, thus, with his virtues.
tamevamvratasampannamapradhrishhyaparaakramam || 2-1-33
lokapaalopamam naathamakaamayata medinii |
The earth wished Rama to be her Lord as he was adorned with self -control and norms of behavior bearing undefeatable valor equal to that of universal lords like Indra.
etaistu bahubhiryuktam gunairanupamaih sutam || 2-1-34
drishhtvaa dasharatho raajaa chakre chintaam paramtapah |
Dasaratha, who annihilates [destroys] enemies, started thinking as follows after observing his son with his many incomparable virtues.
atha raajjno babhuuvaivam vriddhasya chirajiivinah || 2-1-35
priitireshhaa katham raamo raajaa syaanmayi jiivati |
The long living and aged Dasaratha thought: "Will Rama become king while I am still alive? Shall I enjoy that happiness?"
eshhaa hyasya paraa priitirhridi samparivartate || 2-1-36
kadaa naama sutam drakshyaamyabhishhiktamaham priyam |
A great loving thought was ringing in his mind that when he would be able to see his beloved son Rama crowned as a king.
vriddhikaamo hi lokasya sarvabhuutaanukampanah || 2-1-37
mattah priyataro loke parn^anya iva vrishhtimaan |
"Is not Rama, as a raining cloud to the earth, better liked by people than me, as he desires the development of the world and has equal compassion towards all living beings."
yamashakrasamo viirye brihaspatisamo matau || 2-1-38
mahiidharasamo dhrityaam mattashcha gunavattarah |
"Rama is equal to Yama and Devendra in valor, to Brihaspati in wisdom and to a mountain in courage. He is more virtuous than me."
mahiimahamimaam kritsnaamadhitishhthantamaatmajam || 2-1-39
anena vayasaa drishhtvaa yathaa svargamavaapnuyaam |
"Shall I attain heaven, after seeing in this age, my son ruling the entire earth?"
ityetai rvividhai staistai ranyapaarthivadurlabhaih || 2-1-40
shishhtairaparimeyaishchha loke lokottarairgunaih |
tam samiikshya mahaaraajo yuktam samuditaih shubhaih || 2-1-41
nishchitya sachivaih saardham yuvaraajamamanyata |
Rama had many other virtues beyond hitherto stated virtues not to be seen in other kings. His virtues cannot be counted and they are the best in the world. Seeing that type of virtuous Rama, Dasaratha along with his ministers, decided to make Rama the prince.
divyantarikshe bhuumau cha ghoramutpaatajam bhayam || 2-1-42
samchachakshe.atha medhaavii shariire chaatmano jaraam |
The wise Dasaratha said that there was sign of a great alarm being forecast because of comet like things found in earth, heaven and the sky. He also told the ministers that his body was getting aged.
puurnachandraananasyaatha shokaapanudamaatmanah || 2-1-43
loke raamasya bubudhe sampriyatvam mahaatmanah |
He recognized that if Rama were crowned as king, he would not have worries as Rama had beautiful face as a full moon; was a great wise man; and was liked by the people.
aatmanashcha prajaanaam cha shreyase cha priyena cha || 2-1-44
praaptakaalena dharmaatmaa bhaktyaa tvaritavaan nripah |
The righteous Dasaratha was hurried with concern in the coronation of Rama as it is for his own benefit and for the benefit of people. Because it is as per his liking and also as the appropriate time has come.
naanaanagaravaastavyaan prithagjaanapadaanapi || 2-1-45
samaaninaaya medinyaah pradhaanaan prithiviipatiin |
Dasaratha called for other kings and officers staying in various cities and villages in his kingdom separately.
na tu kekayaraajaanam janakam vaa naraadhipah || 2-1-46
tvarayaa chaanayaamaasa pashchaattau shroshhyatah priyam |
The hurried Dasaratha did not call for the king Kekaya, the maternal uncle of Bharatha or the King Janaka as he thought they both could hear the good news even afterwards.
taanveshmanaanaabharanairyathaarham pratipuujitaan || 2-1-47
dadarshaalamkrito raajaa prajaapatiriva prajaah |
The king Dasaratha presented them suitably with houses and jewelry. Duly adorned himself, he looked after them in the manner Lord Brahma looks after his children.
athopavishhte nripatau tasmin parabalaardane || 2-1-48
tatah pravivishuh sheshha raajaano lokasammataah |
All the invited kings, duly liked by their people, entered the assembly after the king Dasaratha, who annihilates [destroys] the opponent's army, occupied his seat.
atha raajavitiirneshhu vividheshhvaasaneshhu cha || 2-1-49
raajaanamevaabhimukhaa nishhedurniyataa nripaah |
The kings thus entered, occupied their various seats allotted to them by the king, by facing toward the king as per the prescribed [advised] rules.
sa labdhamaanairvinayaanvitairnripaih |
puraalayai rjaanapadaishcha maanavaih |
upopavishhtairnrito babhau |
sahasrachakshurbhagavaanivaamaraih || 2-1-50
Surrounded by the respected and humble kings sitting closely to him as well as the important heads of cities and villages, king Dasaratha shone like lord Devendra surrounded by celestials.
|| iti shriimadraamaayane ayodhyakaande prathama sargah ||
Thus completes 1st Chapter of Ayodhya Kanda of the glorious Ramayana of Valmiki, the work of a sage and the oldest epic.
Sriman Moola Rama Vijayate