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Chapter 42: Sugriva Sends Sushena and Others to the West

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Sugriva Sends Sushena and Others to the West

Summary

Sugreeva sends troops to west side to search for Seetha under the leadership of Sushena, the father of Lady Tara. Describing the various and magnificent mountains that are situated at the northwest of India, and also the ocean down south to it, namely the present Arabian Sea and almost up to Persian provinces, he orders monkey troops to return within one month's time.

Chapter [Sarga] 42 in Detail

tatah prasthaapya sugriivah taan hariin daksinaam disham |

abravit megha sa.nkaasham sushesanam naama vaanaram | 4-42-1

On sending monkeys to southern direction Sugreeva spoke to a Vanara named Sushena who looked like a massive cloud. [4-42-1]

taaraayaah pitaram raajaa shvashuram bhiima vikramam |

abraviit praanjalih vaakyam abhigamya pranamya ca || 4-42-2

On approaching and venerating that awesomely valorous Sushena, the father of Lady Tara, thereby his own father-in-law, king Sugreeva spoke this sentence while adjoining palms in supplication. [4-42-2]

maharsi putram maariicam arcismantam mahaakapim |

vriitam kapivaraih shuuraih mahendra sadri^isha dyutim || 4-42-3

buddhi vikrama sampannaan vainateya sama dyutim |

mariici putraan maariicaan arcirmaalyaan mahabalaan || 4-42-4

risi putraan ca taan sarvaan pratiiciim aadishat disham |

Sugreeva ordered the superb monkey son of great-sage Maareecha, called Arcishman, to western direction, who is a surrounded with exceptional and braving monkeys, a coequal to Indra in his resplendence, endowed with brilliance and bravery and whose speed equals that of the son of Vinata, namely Garuda, the Eagle-vehicle of Vishnu. Along with him Sugreeva also ordered the greatly mighty brothers of Arcishman i.e., the other Vanara sons of Sage Maareecha, known as Arcishmaalyaa-s, also called as Maareecha-s. [3, 4, 5a]

dvaabhyaam shata sahasraabhyaam kapiinaam kapi sattamaah || 4-42-5

sushesana pramukhaa yuuyam vaidehiim parimaargatha |

"Oh, outstanding monkeys, you shall search for Vaidehi proceeding with two hundred thousand monkeys, say two lakhs, and Sushena as your leader." Thus, Sugreeva started to speak to Vanara troops. [4-42-5b, 6a]

sauraastraan saha baahliikaan ca.ndracitraan tathaiva ca || 4-42-6

sphiitaan jana padaan ramyaan vipulaani puraani ca |

pu.mnaaga gahanam kuksim vakula uddaalaka aakulam || 4-42-7

tathaa ketaka kha.ndaan ca maargadhvam hari pu.ngavaah |

"Oh, best monkeys, conduct search in the Sauraastra, Baahlika and Candracitra provinces, including their extensive and delightful rural areas and spacious cities, as well as in their woods with Punnaaga trees, areas filled with Vakula, and Uddaalaka trees and in their interiors, and even in the thickets of Ketaka trees. [4-42-6b, 7, 8a]

pratyak sroto vahaah caiva nadyah shiitajalaah shivaah || 4-42-8

taapasaanaam aranyaani kaa.ntaaraa girayah ca ye |

tatra sthaliih marupraayaa ati ucca shikharaah shilaah || 4-42-9

giri jaala aavritaam durgaam maargitvaa pashcimaam disham |

tatah pashcimam aagamya samudram drastum arhatha || 4-42-10

timi nakra aakula jalam gatvaa drakshyatha vaanaraah |

"Oh, Vanara-s, search at the blest rivers in the west whose cool water flows westward, as well as in the forests of sages and on the mountains of those forests, and even in lands that are virtually waterless and on the highly towering mountains that are chilly. On searching such an impassable western quarter encircled with enmeshed mountains, then it will be apt of you to come and see Western Ocean. Having come to Western Ocean, you will see seawater ruffled by sharks and crocodiles. [8b, 9, 10, 11a]

tatah ketaka kha.ndesu tamaala gahanesu ca || 4-42-11

kapayo viharisyanti naarikela vanesu ca |

"Later the monkeys may ramble in the shrubberies of Ketaka plants, in copses of Tamala plants and in the boscages of coconut trees. [4-42-11b, 12a]

tatra siitaam ca maargadhvam nilayam raavanasya ca || 4-42-12

velaatala nivestesu parvatesu vanesu ca |

muracii pattanam caiva ramyam caiva jataa puram || 4-42-13

ava.ntiim a.ngalepaam ca tathaa ca alaksitam vanam |

raastraani ca vishaalaani pattanaani tatah tatah || 4-42-14

"Seetha shall be searched along with the residency of Ravana on the mountains that are sitting pretty on the seashore, as well as in the forests on those mountains. Further, the delightful cities available alongshore like Muraci, Jaatapura, Avanti and Angalepa are to be searched together with the forest of Alakshita, including the nearby provinces and spacious townships. [4-42-12b, 13, 14]

sindhu saagarayoh caiva sa.ngame tatra parvatah |

mahaan hema girih naama shata shri.ngo mahaadrumah || 4-42-15

"At the junction of River Sindhu with the ocean, Mouth of Indus, there is a huge mountain named Hemagiri, Golden-Mountain, which is with hundreds of summits and gigantic trees. [4-42-15]

tatra prasthesu ramyesu si.mhaah paksa gamaah sthitaah |

timi matsya gajaamb caiva niidaani aaropayanti te || 4-42-16

"On the beautiful ridges of that mountain flying-lions are inhibiting and they will be winching sharks, fish and elephant seals to their lairs. [4-42-16]

taani niidaani si.mhaanaam giri shri.nga gataah ca ye |

driptaah triptaah ca maata.ngaah toyada svana nihsvanaah || 4-42-17

vicaranti vishaale asmin toya puurne samantatah |

"The elephants inhibiting on the top of that mountain are contended and conceited, and trumpeting like thunderous clouds they will be moving everywhere in that vast area of the mountain abutted by water and near at the lairs of flying-lions. [4-42-17, 18a]

tasya shri.ngam diva sparsham kaa.ncanam citra paadapam ||4-42-18

sarvam aashu vicetavyam kapibhih kaama ruupibhih |

"The monkeys who can change their guise by their wish have to quickly and entirely search the golden peak of that Hemagiri which will be touching the sky and which has amazing trees on it. [4-42-18b, 19a]

kotim tatra samudre tu kaa.ncaniim shata yojanam || 4-42-19

durdarshaam paariyaatrasya gataa draksyatha vaanaraah |

"On your seagoing there, oh, Vanara-s, you will see the golden peak of a waterlogged mountain called Mt. Paariyaatra, which peak will be hundred yojana-s in height, and which is difficult to see as it will be blindingly glittering. [4-42-19b, 20a]

kotyah tatra caturvimshat ga.ndharvaanaam tarasvinaam || 4-42-20

vasanti agni nikaashaanaam ghoraanaam kaama ruupinaam |

"Twenty four crores of mighty and atrocious Gandharva-s whose glow is similar to the fire and who can change their guise at their wish are living there on that mountain Paariyaatra. [4-42-20b, 21a]

paavaka arcih pratiikaashaah samavetaah samantatah || 4-42-21

na ati aasaadayitvaah te vaanaraih bhiima vikramaih |

"If those Gandharva-s who resemble the tongues of fire are given offence, they will be thronging together from everywhere, as such even awfully courageous vanara-s shall not provoke them. [4-42-21b, 22a]

na adeyam ca phalam tasmaat deshaat kimcit plava.ngamaih || 4-42-22

duraasadaa hi te viiraah sattvavanto mahaabalaah |

phala muulaani te tatra raksante bhiima vikramaah || 4-42-23

"And the fly-jumpers shall not pluck at least a fruit in that province. Because those assiduous, highly mighty and valiant Gandharva-s are impossible for overtures, isn't it. Moreover, those appallingly audacious Gandharva-s will be safeguarding fruits and tubers there. [4-42-22, 23]

tatra yatnah ca kartavyo maargitavyaa ca jaanakii |

na hi tebhyo bhayam ki.ncit kapitvam anuvartataam || 4-42-24

"There you have to put yourself in devoir and search for Janaki. In the event of your following just monkey-hood and its antics, without becoming adventuresome, there will be no scare from those Gandharva-s. Then you proceed from that Mt. Paariyaatra to Mt. Vajra. [4-42-24]

tatra vaiduurya varnaabho vajra sa.msthaana sa.msthitah |

naanaa druma lataa aakiirno vajrah naama mahaagirih || 4-42-25

shriimaan samuditah tatra yojanaanaam shatam samam |

guhaah tatra vicetavyaah prayatnena plava.ngamaah || 4-42-26

"Oh, fly-jumpers, there is a great mountain named Mt. Vajra in that sea beyond Mt. Paariyaatra. It will be with a shine similar to the hue of the gemstone lapis, and it will be standing like a diamond in its shape, hence it is diamondiferous. There that glorious mountain will be soaring high, squarely for a hundred yojana-s, and diverse trees and climbers will be spreading over it. There, on that mountain you have to search pursuantly including its caverns. [4-42-25, 26]

catur bhaage samudrasya cakravaan naama parvatah |

tatra cakram sahasraaram nirmitam vishvakarmanaa || 4-42-27

"In the fourth quarter of that ocean from land a mountain named Cakravaan is there. Vishvakarma, the Divine Architect, constructed a thousand-spoked wheel on it. [4-42-27]

tatra pa.ncajanam hatvaa hayagriivam ca daanavam |

aajahaara tatah cakram sha.nkham ca purusottamah || 4-42-28

Puraana/Legend: "Once upon a time in the crusades of gods-demons, Vishnu assuming the form of Purushottama 'Supreme Person' slew the horse-faced demon named Hayagriiva on that mountain, and snatched away the wheel-weapon from him. Until then, this wheel-weapon existed under the custody of that demon Hayagriiva. Purushottama also put another demon Pancajana to death on that very mountain and took away his backbone, which is a conch-shell. Thus the conch-shell handled by Vishnu is known as paancha janya shankha 'Paanchajanya conch.' Thus, this Cakravaan named mountain assumes legendary importance to search for Seetha. [4-42-28]

tasya saanusu ramyesu vishaalaasu guhaasu ca |

raavanah saha vaidehyaa maargitavyah tatah tatah || 4-42-29

"Vaidehi is to be searched on the delightful cliffs of that Mt. Cakravaan and also in its spacious caves, together with Ravana, and search for her here, there, and everywhere. [4-42-29]

yojanaani catuh sastih varaaho naama parvatah |

suvarna shri.ngah sumahaan agaadhe varuna aalaye || 4-42-30

"After sixty-four yojana-s another very great mountain with golden peaks is there in abyss of the abode of Rain-god, namely the ocean, and it is named as Mt. Varaaha. [4-42-30]

tatra praak jyotisam naama jaataruupamayam puram |

yasmin vasati dusta aatmaa narako naama daanavah || 4-42-31

"A city named Praagjyotisha is there which is completely golden, wherein the evil-minded demon named Naraka is living. [4-42-31]

tatra saanusu ramyesu vishaalaasu guhaasu ca |

raavanah saha vaidehyaa maargitavyah tatah tatah || 4-42-32

"There on the delightful cliffs and spacious caves of that Mt. Varaaha, including that city Praagjyotisha, Ravana shall be searched together with Vaidehi. [4-42-32]

tam atikramya shailendram kaa.ncanaan antara darshanam |

parvatah sarva sauvarno dhaaraa prasravana aayutah || 4-42-33

"On ranging from that best Mt. Varaaha, whose caves are inlaid with gold-deposits apparent to the naked eye, there is an entirely golden mountain containing waterfalls and rapids called Meghavanta. [4-42-33]

tam gajaah ca varaahaah ca simhaa vyaaghraah ca sarvatah |

abhigar.hjanti satatam tena shabdena darpitaah || 4-42-34

"Listening the sonorous sounds of waterfalls and rapids of that mountain, and construing them to be the roars of their opponent beasts, the elephants, wild boars, lions, and tigers will always be facing that mountain and roaring proud-heartedly all around it, by which that Mt. Meghavanta itself appears to be roaring, proud-heartedly. [4-42-34]

yasmin hari hayah shriimaan mahendrah paakashaasanah |

abhisiktah surai raajaa megho naama sa parvatah || 4-42-35

"On which mountain the distinguished Mahendra, whose horses are green and who is the controller of demon Paaka, is anointed by gods as their king, such a mountain is this named Mt. Megha, or Mt. Meghavanta, which you have to scour. [4-42-35]

tam atikramya shailendram mahendra paripaalitam |

sastim giri sahasraani kaa.ncanaani gamisyatha || 4-42-36

taruna aaditya varnaani bhraajamaanaani sarvatah |

jaataruupamayaih vriksaih shobhitaani supuspitaih || 4-42-37

"On going further from that best mountain ruled by Mahendra, namely Mt. Meghavanta, you shall go to the range of sixty thousand golden mountains. Those mountains are radiant all around with the tinge of young Sun, and with the resplendence of fully flowered trees which are wholly golden in hue. [4-42-36, 37]

tesaam madhye sthito raajaa meruh uttama parvatah |

aadityena prasannena shailo datta varah puraa || 4-42-38

"There is a unique and kingly mountain in the midst of that range of golden mountains, which is called Mt. Meru, or Saavrni Meru, to which mountain generous Sun has once given a boon. [4-42-38]

tena evam uktah shailendrah sarva eva tvat aashrayaah |

mat prasaadaat bhavisyanti divaa raatrau ca kaa.ncanaah || 4-42-39

tvayi ye ca api vatsyanti deva gandharva daanavaah |

te bhavisyanti bhaktaah ca prabhayaa kaa.ncana prabhaah || 4-42-40

"The Sun said to that unique Mt. Meru Saavarni in this way, 'by my beneficence whatever that is sheltered by you, say trees, climbers, rapids, boulders, all of them will transmute into golden hue, either by day or by night. Even those that reside on you, say gods, Gandharva-s, or demons, they too shall thrive as my votaries and as far as their resplendence is concerned they will be glittering like gold, i.e., in the ochry golden hue of the eventide. [4-42-39, 40]

vishvedevaah ca vasavo marutah ca diva okasah |

aagatya pashcimaam sandhyaam merum uttama parvatam || 4-42-41

aadityam upatisthanti taih ca suuryo abhipuujitah |

adrishyah sarva bhuutaanaam astam gacchati parvatam || 4-42-42

"On their coming to that unique mountain Mt. Meru Saavarni at vespers Vishvedeva-s, Vasava-s, Marut-s, and the other celestials will bide their time for the dusking Sun, and when they all have worshipped him, the Sun goes to the Mt. Astagiri, the Dusking Mountain, and evanishes for all beings for that day. [4-42-41, 42]

yojanaanaam sahasraani dasha taani divaakarah |

muhuurta ardhena tam shiighram abhiyaati shila uccayam || 4-42-43

"The Sun courses across those ten thousand yojana-s from Mt. Meru Saavarni to Mt. Astaadri in one and half hours, and quickly reaches Mt. Astagiri, or Mt. Dusk. [4-42-43]

shri.nge tasya mahat divyam bhavanam suurya sa.nnibham |

praasaada gana sa.mbaadham vihitam vishvakarmanaa || 4-42-44

"On the pinnacle of Mt. Astagiri, or the Mt. Dusk, there is a supreme and heavenly manor-house compacted with multi-storied buildings, which in shine will be similar to Sun and which is arranged by Vishvakarma, the Divine Architect. [4-42-44]

shobhitam tarubhih citraih naanaa paksi samaakulaih |

niketam paasha hastasya varunasya mahaatmanah || 4-42-45

"That villa is brightened by amazing trees, on which diverse birds will be twittering musically, belongs to the great-souled Varuna, the Rain-god, who wields a tether. [4-42-45]

antaraa merum astam ca taalo dasha shiraa mahaan |

jaataruupamayah shriimaan bhraajate citra vedikah || 4-42-46

"In between Mt. Meru and Mt. Astaadri there is a gigantic ten-leaved Date-palm-tree, which is completely golden and shines forth with a marvelous podium. [4-42-46]

tesu sarvesu durgesu sarassu ca saritsu ca |

raavanah saha vaidehyaa maargitavyah tatah tatah || 4-42-47

"On all those mountains, lakesides and riversides Vaidehi shall be searched together with Ravana, far and wide. [4-42-47]

yatra tisthati dharmajnah tapasaa svena bhaavitah |

meru saavarnir iti esa khyaato vai brahmanaa samah || 4-42-48

"This is where the virtue-knower, an enlightened one by his own asceticism, a selfsame personality to Brahma and one renowned as Sage Merusaavarni indeed resides. [4-42-48]

prastavyo merusaavarnih maharsih suurya sa.nnibhah |

pranamya shirasaa bhuumau pravrittim maithiliim prati || 4-42-49

"And that sage Merusaavarni who is Sun-similar in his shine can be asked, only on your prostration before him in veneration, about the tidings of Maithili, and her whereabouts. [4-42-49]

etaavat jiiva lokasya bhaaskaro rajanii ksaye |

kritvaa vitimiram sarvam astam gacchati parvatam || 4-42-50

"On effacing the utter darkness of all the mortal world up to here, the illuminator of mortal world and the decliner of night, namely the Sun, will go to the Mt. Astagiri, say Mt. Dusk. [4-42-50]

etaavat vaanaraih shakyam gantum vaanara pungavaah |

abhaaskaram amaryaadam na jaaniimah tatah param || 4-42-51

"It is possible for the Vanara-s to go only up to there, oh, best Vanara-s, and we have no knowledge of those sunless and boundless realms available far and beyond. [4-42-51]

avagamya tu vaidehiim nilayam raavanasya ca |

astam parvatam aasaadya puurne maase nivartata || 4-42-52

"You shall return within a month on knowing about Vaidehi and also about the residency of Ravana, or on your reaching Mt. Astagiri, say Mt. Dusk. [4-42-52]

uurdhvam maasaan na vastavyam vasan vadhyo bhaven mama |

saha eva shuuro yusmaabhih shvashuro me gamisyati || 4-42-53

"And none shall stay behind for more than a month, and if anyone stays, I have to exercise coup de grace in his respect. By the way, my valorous father-in-law, namely Sushena, is proceeding along with you. [4-42-53]

shrotavyam sarvam etasya bhavadbhih dista kaaribhih |

guruh esa mahaabaahuh shvashuro me mahaabalah || 4-42-54

"As achievers of ordered tasks you shall give heed to all of the orders given by him. He who is highly dexterous and great mighty such a Sushena is my father-in-law, thus he is a venerable to me, as well as to you. [4-42-54]

bhavantah ca api vikraantaah pramaanam sarve eva hi |

pramaanam enam sa.msthaapya pashyadhvam pashcimaam disham || 4-42-55

"Even all of you are triumphant ones and indeed archetypes by yourselves, but instituting him as your archetype you shall search the western direction. [4-42-55]

dristaayaam tu narendrasyaa patnyaam amita tejasah |

krita krityaa bhavisyaamah kritasya pratikarmanaa || 4-42-56

"We all fulfill ourselves in reciprocating him who has done good to us, only if we can locate Seetha, the wife of the king of humans whose vitality is unlimited, namely Rama. [4-42-56]

ato anyat api yat kaaryam kaaryasya asya priyam bhavet |

sa.mpradhaarya bhavadbhih ca desha kaala artha sa.mhitam || 4-42-57

"Even if any other task than this is there, that which shall be conducive to this task, and which shall also be conducive to time, place and purpose, you shall undertake that task also on deciding about it among yourselves." Sugreeva spoke thus to the monkeys going to western direction. [4-42-57]

tatah susena pramukhaah plava.ngamaah

sugriiva vaakyam nipunam nishamya |

aama.ntrya sarve plavagaadhipam te

jagmur disham taam varuna abhiguptaam || 4-42-58

On hearing the sentences of Sugreeva sedulously, then Sushena and the other important fly-jumpers took leave of the king of fly-jumpers, namely Sugreeva, and proceeded along with their individual troops to that western direction which is well cloistered by Varuna, the Rain-god. [4-42-58]

iti vaalmiiki raamaayane aadi kaavye kiskindha kaande dvi catvaarimshah sargah

Thus, this is the 42nd chapter in Kishkindha Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, the First Epic poem of India.

Sriman Moola Rama Vijayate

 

References

 

Desiraju Hanumanta Rao. (2000). Kishkindha Kanda - The Empire of Holy Monkeys.

 

Merriam-Webster. (2007). At http://www.m-w.com.

 

Reference.com. (2007). At http://www.reference.com.

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