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Chapter 43: Shiva Catches the Ganges on His Head

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Shiva Catches the Ganges on His Head

 

Summary

Ganga descends to earth by the extraordinary effort of Bhageeratha. Shiva agrees to the alighting of Ganga on His head and from where she is released into a lake called Bindusarovar, and from there she flows in seven courses. On land Bhageeratha ushers her up to netherworld dug by his ancestors where heaps of ashes of his grandparents are there, and she enters accordingly to inundate [to cover over completely] those mounds of ashes according salvation to the souls.

Shiva Catches the Ganges on His Head

Chapter [Sarga] 43 in Detail

deva deve gate tasmin so angustha agra nipiiditaam |

kritvaa vasumatiim raama vatsaram samupaasata || 1-43-1

When the God of Gods Brahma left from there Bhageeratha stood on the tip of his big-toe praying for the mercy of Lord Shiva for one year, while that tip of his big-toe pressurized the earth. Thus Vishvamitra continued his narration about Bhageeratha's effort to bring Ganga to earth. [1-43-1]

atha samvatsare puurne sarva loka namaskritah |

umaapatih pashupatii raajaanam idam abraviit || 1-43-2

On completion of one year, he who is venerated by all worlds, the consort of Uma and the God of animals from insects to humans, that God Shiva revealed himself and spoke this to the king. [1-43-2]

priitah te aham narashrestha karisyaami tava priyam |

shirasaa dhaarayisyaami shailaraaja sutaam aham ||1-43-3

Oh, best one among humans, I am delighted with your unwavering effort, and I will fulfill your cherish. I will therefore sustain Ganga, the daughter of king of mountains by my head. [1-43-3]

tato haimavatii jyesthaa sarva loka namaskritaa |

tadaa saa ati mahat ruupam kritvaa vegam ca duhsaham ||1-43-4

aakaashaat apatat raama shive shiva shirasy uta |

Afterwards, she who is reverenced by all the worlds and who is the elder daughter of Himavanta, that Ganga assuming an unendurable [unbearable] form and an insupportable rapidity, they say, then plunged from the sky onto the auspicious head of Shiva. [1-43-4, 5a]

acintayah ca saa devii ga.nga parama durhdharaa ||1-43-5

vishaami aham hi paataalam strotasaa grihya sha.nkaram |

She who is an extremely unendurable river that Goddess Ganga even speculated saying to herself, 'let me enter netherworld, indeed whisking [to brush or wipe off lightly] Shiva with my streams.' [1-43-5b, 6a]

tasyaah valepanam jnatva kruddhah tu bhagavan harah || 1-43-6

tirobhaavayitum buddhim chakre trinayanah tadaa |

Discerning [understanding] her egotism [excessive concern for oneself] God Shiva is infuriated, and then on his part that Three-eyed God Shiva thought to pent her up in the tufts of his head-hair. [1-43-6b, 7a]

saa tasmin patitaa punyaa punye rudrasya muur.hdhani||1-43-7

himavat pratime raama jataa mandala gahvare |

And oh, Rama, she that holy River Ganga swooped down into the cavernous curls of matted hair-tufts on the holy head of God Shiva, and she became a detainee in them. [1-43-7b, 8a]

saa kathamcit mahiim ga.ntum na ashak.hnot yatnam aasthitaa ||1-43-8

na eva saa nirgamam lebhe jataa mandala antatah |

Though she strove [to struggle in opposition] hard in one way or another to reach the earth that Ganga is rendered incapable, as she could not gain access for an outlet from any edge of the coils of matted hair-tufts of Shiva, hence she is held there in durance [restraint by] vile [base]. [1-43-8b, 9a]

tatra eva aabambhramat devii samvatsara ganaan bahuun ||1-43-9

taam apashyan punah tatra tapah paramam aasthitah |

Goddess Ganga whirled round and round in the coils of tufts alone for many number of years, and when Ganga's emanation [to come out] from those coils is intangible Bhageeratha again firmed up in a marvelous penance in the matter of her descent to earth. [1-43-9b, 10a]

sa tena toshitah ca asiit atyantam raghuna.mdana || 1-43-10

visasarja tato ga.ngaam haro bindu sarah prati |

Oh, Rama, the legatee of Raghu, with that asceticism of Bhageeratha God Shiva is very much delighted, and thereupon he has also released Ganga aiming at Bindu Lake in Himalayas. [1-43-10b, 11a]

tasyam visriujyamaanaayaam sapta srota.msi jajnire || 1-43-11

hlaadinii paavanii caiva nalinii ca tathaa eva ca |

tisrah praaciim disham jagmuh ga.ngaah shiva jalaah shubhaah || 1-43-12

While God Shiva released Ganga into Bindu Lake seven streams have emerged out of it, and thus three auspicious Ganga-s with holy waters have cruised eastward which are known as Hlaadini, Paavani, and Nalini. [1-43-11b, 12]

suchakshuh ca eva siitaa ca sindhuh ca eva mahaanadii |

tisrah etaa disham jagmuh pratiichiim tu shubha udakaah ||1-43-13

Also thus Sucakshu, Seetha, and the excellent river Sindhu are the other three rivers which streamed to the westward direction with their holy waters. [1-43-13]

saptamii ca anvagaat taasam bhagiiratha ratham tadaa |

bhagiiratho api rajar.hsi divyam sya.ndanam aasthitah || 1-43-14

praayaat agre mahaatejaa ga.nga tam ca api anuvrajat |

Of them the seventh Ganga flowed towards the path of Bhageeratha' chariot, and that great-resplendent and kingly sage Bhageeratha sitting in a divine chariot moved ahead and even Ganga followed him. [1-43-14, 15a]

gaganaat sha.nkara shirah tato dharanim aagataa || 1-43-15

asarpata jalam tatra tiivra shabda puraskritam |

Thus Ganga came from heavens onto Shankara's head and from there onto the earth, and there on earth her waters advanced with a tumultuous [rioting] sound advancing them. [1-43-15b, 16a]

matsya kacchapa sa.nghaih ca shishumaara ganaih tathaa || 1-43-16

patadbhih patitaih ca eva vyarocata vasu.mdharaa |

The earth then verily shone forth with the shoals of fish, schools of tortoises, and scores of porpoises [dolphins] and other aquatic beings that have already fallen and that are still falling in step with the spates [rush] of Ganga. [1-43-16b, 17a]

tato deva risi ga.ndharvaa yaksa siddha ganaah tathaa || 1-43-17

vyalokayanta te tatra gaganaat gaam gataam tadaa |

Later, they the Gods, sages, Gandharva-s, Yaksha-s, and the assemblages of Siddha-s have then seen there the swoop of Ganga in that way from heaven to earth, with curiosity. [1-43-17b, 18a]

vimaanaih nagara aakaaraih hayaih gaja varaih tathaa ||1-43-18

paariplava gataah ca api devataah tatra visthitaah |

Some of the Gods with aircrafts that are like cities in their shape and size, and some with horses that are prancing [to walk or move in a spirited manner], and some with best elephants that are staggering, at the very sight of plunging Ganga, have entered the firmament at that place. [1-43-18b, 19a]

tat adbhutatamam loke ga.ngaa avataram uttamam ||1-43-19

didriksavo deva ganaah samiiyuh amita ojasah |

The Gods whose animation is unlimited, and who are anxious to see the plunge of Ganga, have come together in assemblages, which plunge is a highest marvel in the universe by a better degree of her illimitable animation than that of Gods who came to see, and even benignant [favorably] to the world in according water and salving [quite] souls, which those Gods cannot do. [1-43-19b, 20a]

sampatadbhih sura ganaih tesaam ca aabharana ojasaa || 1-43-20

shata aadityam iva aabhaati gaganam gata toyadam |

The glitter of the ornaments of hosts of Gods who are in stampede, made the cloudless sky to shine as if it is with a hundred of suns. [1-43-20b, 21a]

shimshumaara uraga ganaih miinaih api ca ca.ncalaih || 1-43-21

vidyudbhih iva viksiptaih aakaasham abhavat tadaa |

At that time, with the falling and rising of scores of porpoises [dolphins] and reptiles, even with the wriggling fishes, the sky became flashy as if flashes of lightning are strewn over it. [1-43-21b, 22a]

paanduraih salila utpiidaih kiiryamaanaih sahasradhaa ||1-43-22

shaarada abhraih iva aakriinam gaganam ha.msa sa.mplavaih |

Spattered innumerably with the whitish froth from the splashes of Ganga, and stippled with the flights of swans, the sky is as though overspread with silver-clouds of autumn. [1-43-22b, 23a]

kvacit drutataram yaati kutilam kvacit aayatam ||1-43-23

vinatam kvacit uddhuutam kvacit yaati shanaih shanaih |

Somewhere Ganga is coursing precipitately [exhibiting violent or unwise speed] in declivities [a descending slope], elsewhere sinuously on zigzag lands, somewhere else straightly on uniform lands, elsewhere sloppily in canting lands, somewhere gushingly in craggy lands, and somewhere else her cruise is leisurely in flatlands and tardily in uplands. [1-43-23b, 24a]

salilena eva salilam kvacit abhyaahatam punah || 1-43-24

muhur uurdhva patham gatvaa papaata vasudhaam punah |

Somewhere her water repeatedly knocking against her own water is recurrently billowing [to rise] upwards only to make nosedive [a sudden extreme drop] onto earth. [1-43-24b, 25a]

tat sha.mkara shiro bhrastam bhrastam bhuumi tale punah ||1-43-25

vyarocata tadaa toyam nirmalam gata kalmasam |

That impeccable and immaculate water of Ganga then became outstanding as it has flounced [to move with bouncy motions] down from heaven primarily onto the head of Shankara, and there from it has coasted down onto the earth. [1-43-25b, 26a]

tatra risi gana gandharvaa vasudhaa tala vaasinah 1-43-26

bhava a.nga patitam toyam pavitram iti pasprishuh |

And asserting [declare positively] that the water as holy, because it descended touching the body of Shiva, viz., the head of Shiva, the assemblages of sages, Gandharva-s, and those that are residents on the plane of earth have sipped that water at that place. [1-43-26b, 27a]

shaapaat prapatitaa ye ca gaganaat vasudhaa talam ||1-43-27

kritvaa tatra abhisekam te babhuuvuh gata kalmasaah |

Also those that have fallen from heaven onto the surface of earth by some curse or the other, they too became blemishless [pure] on taking head-bath in the water of Ganga. [1-43-27b, 28a]

dhuuta paapaah punah tena toyena atha shubha anvitaa || 1-43-28

punah aakaasham aavishya svaan lokaan pratipedire |

When sins are washed away with the hallowing water of Ganga, they again transited skyward and then obtained their own empyrean [celestial] worlds once again. [1-43-28b, 29a]

mumude mudito lokah tena toyena bhaasvataa || 1-43-29

krita abhiseko ga.ngaayaam babhuuva gata kalmasah |

With her splendorous water people are blissful, and on taking dip-baths in Ganga they are totally removed of the strains of their sins, and they lived blissfully ever after. [1-43-29b, 30a]

bhagiiratho raajarsih divyam syandanam aasthitah ||1-43-30

praayaat agre mahaaraajaah tam ga.ngaa pristhato anvagaat |

In this way, the great-resplendent and kingly sage Bhageeratha sitting in a divine chariot continuously moved ahead and Ganga continually followed him at his behind. [1-43-30b, 31a]

devaah sa risi ganaah sarve daitya daanava raaksasaah || 1-43-31

gandharva yaksa pravaraah sa ki.nnara mahoragaah |

sarpaah ca apsaraso raama bhagiiratha ratha anugaah || 1-43-32

gangaam anvagaman priitaah sarve jala caraah ca ye |

Oh, Rama, all of the Gods along with the assemblages of sages, ogres, monsters, demons, and even great reptiles with Kinnaras, and Gandharva-s with best Yaksha-s, and even serpents and Apsara-s, have delightfully moved after Ganga who is following the chariot of Bhageeratha, and why they, in fact, all of the aquatic beings have followed Ganga. [31b, 32, 33a]

yato bhagiiratho raajaa tato ga.ngaa yashasvinii || 1-43-33

jagaama saritaam shresthaa sarva paapa pranaashinii |

In whichever direction king Bhageeratha has advanced, that glorious River Ganga, who is the prominent river among all the rivers and the complete obliterator [destroy utterly all trace] of sins, has also moved at his behind in that direction. [1-43-33b, 34a]

tato hi yajamaanasya jahnoh adbhuta karmanah ||1-43-34

ganga sa.mplaavayaamaasa yajna vaatam mahatmanah |

While in flow she started to completely inundate [to cover over completely] the field of Vedic-ritual belonging to the great-souled sage Jahnu, who is of marvelous deeds and who is presently an officiator of an ongoing Vedic-ritual. [1-43-34b, 35a]

tasayaa valepanam jnatva kriddho jahnuh ca raaghava || 1-43-35

apibat tu jalam sarvam gangayaah parama adbhutam |

But on knowing her hubris [exaggerated pride], oh, Raghava, that sage Jahnu has become irritated and causing an extreme marvel he drank off all the water of Ganga. [1-43-35b, 36a]

tato devaah sa gangharva risayah ca su vismitaah || 1-43-36

puujayanti mahatmanam jahnum purusha sattamam |

gangam ca api nayanti sma duhitritve mahaatmanah || 1-43-37

Thereupon, the Gods along with Gandharva-s and sages at that extremely marvelous feat of Sage Jahnu are highly astounded, and they then started to worship that ablest human and great-souled sage Jahnu, and even deigned [offer] for the daughterhood of Ganga to that high-souled sage Jahnu. [1-43-36b, 37]

tatah tustah mahaatejaah shrotraabhyaam asriujat prabhuh |

tasmaat jahnu sutaa ga.nga procyate jaahnavii iti ca || 1-43-38

That greatly radiant and Godly sage Jahnu is then delighted and released Ganga from both of his ears. Therefore Ganga became the daughter of sage Jahnu, and she is also renowned as Jahnavi, after the name of that sage. [1-43-38]

jagaama ca punah ga.nga bhagiiratha ratha anugaa |

saagaram ca api sa.mpraptaa saa sarit pravaraa tadaa ||1-43-39

rasaatalam upaagacchat siddhyartham tasya karmanah |

Even though Ganga again proceeded moving behind the chariot of Bhageeratha and reached the ocean, there from she had to wend her way to netherworld, once dug by the sons of Sagara, only to accomplish the mission of Bhageeratha, namely drenching the ashes of Sagara's sons. [1-43-39, 40a]

bhagiiratho api rajaarsi ga.ngam aadaaya yatnatah || 1-43-40

pitamahaan bhasma krutam apashyat gata chetanah |

Even kingly-sage Bhageeratha making every effort ushered [introduced] Ganga to netherworld, but on seeing his grandparents rendered to ashes he has became doleful [sad]. [1-43-40b, 41a]

atha tat bhasmanaam raashim ga.nga salilam uttamam |

plaavayat puuta paapmaanah svargam praptaa raghu uttama ||1-43-41

Oh, Rama, the best of Raghu's dynasty, then Ganga inundated that mound of ashes of Sagara's six-thousand sons, by which those souls obtained heaven, while the sins of souls are cleansed with the water of Ganga. Thus Vishvamitra continued his narration. [1-43-41b, c]

iti vaalmiiki raamaayane aadi kaavye baala kaande tri catvaarimshah sargah

Thus, this is the 43rd chapter in Bala Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, the First Epic poem of India.

Sriman Moola Rama Vijayate

References

Desiraju Hanumanta Rao. (1998). Balakanda - Book Of Youthful Majesties.

Merriam-Webster. (2007). At http://www.m-w.com.

Reference.com. (2007). At http://www.reference.com.

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